Superheroes 9/1 – The Seafarer

Hi everyone,

1 Strength through humility

Today we began some pre-Beowulf reading. We discussed how British culture changed in 450 AD and again in 597 AD as the Norse (vikings) invaded and their religious culture mingled with the growing Christianity.

Here are the notes in case you need more details: Brit Lit context clues. Just use the 450 AD and 597 AD slides.

To really see this change, we read the poem “The Seafarer,” which shows the blending of Norse and Christian cultures. Here’s the poem if you need it.

Tonight, and in the comments, I’d like you to answer these three questions:

1) Where do we see elements of both 450 AD era British religious/cultural ideas and post-597 AD British religious and cultural ideas?

2) Describe the two journeys happening here. The seafarer talks about the hardship of a life on the sea, but what figurative journey is he on as well? How do they compare to each other?


15 thoughts on “Superheroes 9/1 – The Seafarer

  1. 1.Well on stanzas 37, theres 405 AD ideas “My spirit to fare, that I, far hence, foriegners, pilgrims, homeland should seek.”, The seafarer is leaving his post which would be against the ideas of staying to protect the king which was honorable to do. “For there is none so proud in heart over earth, none so good of his gifts nor in youth so keen, in deeds so brave, to him lord so loyal, that ever no sorrow he has of seafaring, of what the lord-God’s will-brings him to.” These lines(39-43) is a transition to post 597 AD due to him mentioning a singular god and expressing that one will obtain access to heaven, transcend to it by “gifts” or also known as good in moral qualities. ” Therefore, now, heart turns beyond its breast chamber, my mind’s thought with mere-flood, over the whales home, wide in its turning, over earths regions-comes back to me eager and greedy.” The lines(58-62) here to me represent his wanting of going back to home to be near the king but he is instead on a voyage to seek a spiritual journey to find truth and he knows not what lies ahead, but he does battle his beliefs. “Hotter to me are delights of the Lord than this dead life..” This represents the moment he accepts the lord or Christianity and rather be in heaven then where he is now. “That children of men after may praise him, and his glory hereafter live among angels always for ever, eternal life’s splendor, joy among nobles.” This is a mixture of 450 AD and 597 AD ideas, he wants to be immortalize which can be done the Viking way of honorable death protecting the king and his story told along years staying alive while also pertaining Christian beliefs of a heaven, a transition to a place he can actually be immortal with angels and joy and so will the children of his land. “Blessed he who lives humbly; favor to him comes from heaven.” Again the image of transition to heaven where is only obtainable with being humble or good morality. “Where life is long is in love of God, hopes in the heavens, So, to the holy one thanks that he honored us, master of glory, God of eternity, in all our time, AMEN.” finally, this represents the Christian belief how now the idea of immortality is reached by appeasing one God by doing good and only then is true immortality reached.

    2.This journey he alone sets sail in, delves him into himself and with the actual world, he is going against the crashing waves and the unforgiving cold and brutality which is see while also having moments of peace with the sounds of birds. But simultaneously he battles himself and tackles his beliefs if to truly be immortalized does one follow God or his majesty, he kind, both being high powered personas, he struggles with identifying with until in the end he merges the ideas together leading to a single identity, the Lord but while still retaining that immortality is still achievable but not only through a poets words but through true transcendence to the afterlife where true joy can be obtain, the sea he is journeying through can also be seen as the physical metaphor of his beliefs colliding and meshing together, such as the brutal waves due or can be he is riding the sea which is the 450 AD ideas and his vessel which is the post 597 AD beliefs that was recently obtain. Thus the large difference of variation between them both strong but conflicting till the end where the waves merge and settle such as his beliefs.


  2. 1. In Line 68, “Always one of the three things brings into doubt every affair before its due time: illness or old age or else edge-hate..” shows a 450 AD idea. The seafarer is aware of the ways he or any other human being could die whether it is one way or another: a disease, or in battle, but in line 75 “.. good actions on earth against malice of fiends,” shows emphasize on bravery which can help you be remembered after you’re gone displaying that dying in battle is what glory is, “that children of men after may praise him.” The idea of 450 AD transitions into the idea of 597 AD in line 80-85 “Days have departed, all pride of earth’s kingdom; there are no kings and no kaisers.. and then most lordly lived out of their doom.” This is shown to be a part of an idea of Christianity where days will soon go by and at some point he will soon realize that all the pride and glory he has on earth will not matter and will soon focus on the kingdom of heaven. “Let us consider where our true home is.. where life is long in love of God, hope in the heavens.” This displays Christianity when questioning where our home is. With God? or with the king? He explains how if you choose to put your faith in God you will have eternal life with him in heaven rather than a shorter life on Earth and not putting your faith in him.
    2. The journey the seafarer takes on is a quest to find himself. Us, as readers, notice a mixture of 450 AD and 597 AD in the poem where he is searching where he belongs. Does he belong with the king and continue serving for him or should he change paths and follow the word of the Lord and serve him. The hardships of sailing is not only the actual hardship of the sailing, but struggling on deciding his belief. Both of the ideas in the poem soon crash into together like waves rolling in where he finally views both ideas and chooses to follow God and put his life in his hands.


  3. 1) On stanza 2 line 28-30, it says “had few baleful journeys- proud and wine merry, how I, weary often on sea-path had to abide”. This is a connection to the 450 AD because Vikings would always go through threating harm to gain glory or be proud. When the poet says “baleful journeys” he is saying that the journeys threaten his life. Then they say that “proud and wine merry” which I thought meant that because he was alive even after going through those journeys, he is proud and can celebrate with wine. Finally the poet says “often on sea path had to abide”. Abide means to accept. I though the poet was saying that through his journeys he had accepted to live in danger knowing that after that he would have a lot of pride.
    Then on stanza 3, lines 40-43 I can connected to 597 AD. We talked about this in class, but first thing the poet says is the word “Lord”. Norse believed in many lords, meaning that when the poet says “lord” it represents Jesus from Christianity. Carlos in class also said that when the poet says “God’s will- brings him to” most likely means that he believes, with “god’s will”, he can go to heaven. This is also proof at 597 AD.
    2) I believe he is in a journey to get his sins forgiven and find his way to heaven. I believe this because throughout most of the poem, the author describes how his journey is very awful and the hardships he has to go through, like “pinched by the cold were my feet, bound by frost’s fetters”. This is just one of the things he is going through to find himself some forgiveness. However, like I mention in the paragraph above, he believes that with “god’s will” he can be forgiven and led to the road which leads to heaven.


  4. Agustin R
    At the beginning of the poem “ The Seafarer “ describes how much hardship he had faced during his journey on the ocean. He was all by himself the only thing he could hear was the roaring waves. His feet were frozen and his body was starving but his courage was always up. “ pinched by the cold were my feet , bound by frost’s frozen fetters”. This shows how he was suffering during his journey .Also he was saying that the glory in the earth’s kingdom it’s gone, that people shouldn’t be focus in constructing wealth on the earth because that’s not going to help them to get into heaven. This describes how during 450 AD religion arrived and they were trying to change the cultural ideas of the people. During this time a lot people were used to being ruled by a king, therefore it was hard for the people to change their cultural ideas to a religious culture at the time because religion was a new topic that was introduced at the time. More over “The Seafarer “ talks a lot about Jesus and his true love for the people. Therefore he was in a physical and spiritual journey which were battles that helped him to get into heaven. His physical battle would depend on his spiritual battle because both elements were part of his journey to heaven.


  5. 1) As we spoke in class, we saw a corrilation of the year’s combining. In stanza 2 lines 25-30, there is a strong indication that the story connects to the elements of the year 450 AD. It talks about the glorious sacrifice the man is doing for his King. And his realization that he is the only valorous man to take it seriously while everyone else is out drinking and getting drunk. However, just in the next stanza the seafarer talks about his worth towards the lord. He starts to recognize that he is fighting for something great and not just a glorious death. He is revealing his faith to the lord. The seafarer recognizes temptation in the world and is overall seeking himself in the solitude. So with in closing Christian ideologies it starts to bring in the connection of the years 597 AD, because although there was Christianity in 450 AD there was very little recognition and praisement towards it. But in the 579s there was an integration and mixings of the ideologies of Christianity and Pagan.

    2) The two journeys a quota of a metaphorical journey and an actual physical journey. He is on a boat, in was as a Viking, seeking to protect his King. However, he is also beginning to recognize that there is a greater meaning to his life as a hero. He is realizing that the real fight is for God. See you don’t see it but they compare. In 597AD it was a time of confusion and trainsition the king of England wanted to spread Christianity, but it was not a simple task seeing that the whole of London had majorly had a pagan way of viewing things. You can’t just force something on someone. Like cream cheese on a bagel, you have to ease into it and mix it. So the two beliefs were being mixed and This is what the seafarer was going through. He was a man going into war seeking the blessing of his people to die a hero, but with solitude and strong meditation he realizes there is a greater heaven to reach in worshiping the lord. This poem is the mans prayer to the world that is ignorant to the peer of the lord. And him saying he is ready for a life of worship to the lord.

    (Yoo I forced it)


  6. 1. One example within the excerpt that contains one of these elements from 450 A.D is in line 68-70 that states, ” always one of the three things brings into doubt every affair before it’s due time: illness, or old age or else edge hate,” edge hate is another way of saying dying by a sword from being in combat. The culture of 450 A.D was a bit more vigorous as shown in those lines that what is to be expected to end ones life is the regular illness or old time but also by a sword in combat and back then a true warrior/ Viking is someone who died for their king and that is what was expected of most people and this is what the seafarer is showing in his time of reflection. Then later on in line 105 it has an element from 597 A.D as the seafarer talks about the lord since Christianity is more common around that time, he says ” foolish he who fears not his lord: death comes to him unexpected,” this shows that Christianity has played a bigger role in the community and he has a great deal of faith and praises the lord. Calling the ones who do not recognize his power fools as they have not accepted him and will lose their life.
    2. In line 10 the seafarer says,” hunger tore the mind of the sea-weary one,” this shows that one of his obstacles is lack of nutrition/ food at sea and I see this as both physical hunger and mental hunger. As he embarks on this journey alone he can reflect on his life and by mental hunger he is starting to realize that he lacks the proper “mental food,” ( such as information on what life really means). The seafarer is in a way empty or hungry so to say to learn more on what the purpose of life really is and what hope comes from it from all these obstacles he has to face. Relating this back to a different but similar story, Thor in the avenger age of ultron movie lived the Viking life but he left the group of avengers to search for an “answer,” because he was in a troubled time and when he did he went into a body of pool to reflect on his own life which gave him a different perspective on life, like the seafarer who went out on a journey by himself he is reflecting on his past life and the hardships he is enduring to find the deeper meaning of life and what is to come or overlooked as he endures the mighty chilling waves of the sea and the great wave of thoughts in his head on this journey.


  7. 1) When thinking of this idea of 450 AD cultural and religious ideas, we think about sacrifice and glory. Line 68 says “Always one of three things brings into doubt every affair before its due time: illness or old age or else edge-hate”. It talks about the seafarer being aware that he could die one of these three: a disease, his old age or in battle. But in line 75, “…good actions on earth against malice of fiends,” it talks about bravery which can contribute to being remembered for the things you did, which goes back to this idea of glory and dying to protect the king. With the idea of 597 AD religious and cultural ideas, we can see this throughout the poem. For example, line 59 says “…my mind’s thought with mere-flood” and lines 64-66 says “…hotter to me are delights of the Lord than this dead life, loaned on the land” talks about the idea of the seafarer going through a journey similar to one of Noah and the Great Flood that lasted 40 days and 40 nights. With the ideas of 597 AD, it makes it very clear that religion is a big part of their culture.

    2) While he is literally having a journey of hardship out at sea, he is also having a journey of hardship about himself. He is struggling with the idea of leaving his king behind and not protecting him, while at the same time having the struggle to figure out who he really is in the eyes of the Lord. Both ideas of 450 AD and 597 AD show each hardship this seafarer is facing. He sees both ideas hand in hand and ends up with the rest of the Lords followers and serves him to his every wish and desire.


  8. 1. Line 70- 71 says “illness or old age or else edge-hate wrest life away, fey one from ward.” Edge-hate means to die by the enemy sword which in 450 A.D, Norse believed as a warrior’s best death would be in the battle with a sword. The poem then follows up to line 78-79, “for his glory hereafter live among angels always forever, eternal life’s splendor, joy among noble ones.” By the Viking’s death to protect and fight for the king, his story will be told for many centuries on. “Now are no kings and no kaisers nor any gold giver such as once were,”(Line 82-84). Moving along to 597 A.D, Christianity slowly emerges into the British culture and believed in devoting to one god in order to go to heaven. “Foolish he who fears not his lord:comes to him unexcepted… favor to him comes from heaven” (line 106-108). The seafarer informs to behave piously, because Death will come for all men and, ultimately, God will hold every man accountable. In the bible, God saves Noah, his family, and a remnant of all the world’s animals from a flood. As Noah tried to notify others to save them, they did not believe him and thus the flood cleansed the world, ridding of everyone. The bible is what Christians used to explain the account of God’s action in the world, and his purpose with all creation.

    2. In the first part of the poem, the seafarer reflects upon the difficulty of his life at sea. The weather is freezing, the waves are powerful, and he is alone., Yet he contrasts his solitude to the life of land dwellers, which he envies them but he comforts himself by saying they can’t take their money with them when they die. He seems to show pessimistic but follows looking it optimistically. His spirit leaps across the seas and travels the waves, wandering for miles before returning, filled with anticipation. Meanwhile, “the swan’s songs” serves him joy and urges his heart to take to the ocean’s ways.The Seafarer proclaims that the Lord’s joy is more exciting than a fleeting “dead life” on Earth. Even though this journey of his is difficult, he is self-imposed exile to God’s will because he believes that god will save him from “mind’s desires urges” and receive “good of his gifts.”


  9. 1) I’m the beginning of the poem, we as reader we were introduced through a “discovery journey” the character who is going through that journey, has to ratify his own struggle because he is trying to find an answer while he is on the sea. The character seem to be perplexed by the idea of having the lasting life one must trying to protected the king even if it requires to die, to do so. The 450 AD every individual must protect the king, therefore this character comes to a conclusion of taking a trip on the sea and see what answer is find. Moreover the 591AD, Christianity started to become popular in England, do to this, the character’s intuitiveness knows that water it’s a symbolic for Christians, for instance water it’s used to baptize someone when he or she accept Jesus Christ as their savior, therefore human bieng have an affinity toward water. the 450AD Christianity was only practice by few because the major religious were Pagan and Norse; however Christians started to becomes most popular when Pope Gregory in Rome sent Augustine to make other to convert into Christianity.
    2) the journey on the sea was crucial for him because he wanted to know what is his purpose in this earth, was to dies to protect his kind? Or live the lasting life? However to discover this two question he must sacrificed his own life, and his scarification was going into the sea. Yes there was a scarification, in this journey, the character went to a trip where there is a change where a storm might happened during the trip, just like the one when Jesus and his decouple went into a trip and in the sea, Jesus falls asleep, then all of a sudden a big storm came, they almost sunk but Jesus immediately woke up and stop the storm, the fist thing Jesus said, “why are you afraid, you must have little faith” connecting this story to the seafarer, the character went into that sea with the faith of finding the answer. We don’t have to be realigous to have faith but in order to have faith we must have hope, without hope there is no faith, the character had hope and faith, his trip went successfully because he found his savior, the lord. ” for there is none so proud in heart over earth none so good of his gift nor in youth so keen, in deed so brave, to him lord so loyol”( seafarer) he didn’t let find that there is a god but also he found they there is nothing good about earth, he found that he doesnt belong in hearth, because earth it’s full of destruction, cruelty, sadness, etc. he finally found the answers to his question which is the way to home, his home it’s called “heaven” the place where tranquillity and happiness is Persue. ” where life is long in love of God” the lasting life it’s found in heaven, and he is happy to find the key to his door, he finally find the way to go home.


  10. 1) In 2nd stanza there is a connection that can be made with the elements of the 450 AD, 597 AD era. In this time era it would be known as honorable to die in battle , especially if you were defending the king which would be seen as more honorable. Now in this stanza the main character talks about how the men he was with is not taking it serious and are drinking. This seems to bother him which is why he mentions it because like what was said it was known to be honorable to risk your life for the king. In lines 40-43 the man is explaining what he would do for the lord and how the lord is. This demonstrates how strong the faith was in 450 AD and 597 AD. I combined both 597 AD and 450 AD because the culture and religion are both very similar.

    2) Now as for the physical journey, The Seafarer is doing the journey of protecting his King but there is another journey that the Seafarer is going through that is equally important to the physical journey, it’s the faith journey. Throughout the journey the Seafarer is trying to please the lord and show his faith and how strong it is. “Hotter to me are delights of the lord,” this quote shows how much love he shares for his lord and what he will do to make him happy.


  11. 1) At the beginning of the poem “ The Seafarer “ describes how hard he had faced during his journey on the ocean. He was all by himself the only thing he could hear was the roaring waves. even though everything was bad nothing positive was coming up he still had his courage and that’s what pushed him. Also he was saying that the glory in the earth’s kingdom it’s gone, that people shouldn’t be focus in constructing wealth on the earth because that’s not going to help them to get into heaven. 450 AD was hard for people to change there religion because there was a king at the time so they really didn’t have the freedom to change there believes.

    2) In 597AD it wasn’t really the brightest age mostly confused and the transition the king of England wanted to spread Christianity, but it was not a simple at all since majority of it was London and had a way of viewing. he went into a body of pool to reflect on his own life which made him see life as a whole different input , a whole new world some would call it sees life differently. he wanted to seek answers and so he went on a journey by himself to seek one , everyone finds an answer on life and also finds out why you supposed to be here and what you are meant for you just got to take the journey and find out why.


  12. 1. The poem “The Seafarer” by an unknown author contains elements of two eras in Britain, time periods 450 AD and post 597 AD. During 450 AD people yearned to die a glorious death. That their death would mean something such as dying in battle. One of the objectives of the person in this poem is to die that glorious death. While others are sitting around this persona is taking action to do something to obtain that glory, “Indeed, he little believes it … how, I, weary, often on sea-path abide” (Lines 27-30). He’s on this challenging adventure alone on the sea because he is trying to have this amazing journey knowing that he could very likely die and accepts that because it will be a glorious death.
    This poem also connects to the post era of 597 AD in Britain. During this time period Christianity was spreading rapidly. Literature in this time period often contained idea and themes of Christianity. Also this idea that the world was difficult, depressing and harsh. All throughout the poem there are these religious connects to Christianity. The biggest one is the symbol of water. The symbol of water often in literature is used as the idea of rebirth and a new beginning. In Christianity when someone is baptized they have water poured over their head as this is a sign of a fresh start and new beginning. In this poem the persona is on a journey in a ship surrounded by the sea (water). Words like “sea”, “wave” and “water” are repeated all throughout the poem. The repetition is the author showing the importance of the words. Another connection to Christianity in this poem is to Noah’s Arc and the Bible story of Jonah and the whale. On line 52 the connection to Noah’s Arc is, “flood-ways”(52). In Christianity there was a flood and everyone was on Noah’s Arc. Also the reference to “whale-way” is the Bible story of Jonah and the whale. Throughout this poem there are elements that connect to the 450 AD era and post 597 era in Britain.
    2. There are two journeys going on in this poem, one happening to be a literal journey of sailing and another being the figurative one of a new beginning. The literal journey is of the persona going out on the sea alone to control a sail a ship. He goes through these harsh elements like being, “pinched by the cold” or enduring frostbite. This journey is to an unknown destination but even the persona knows this. He/she just wants to die that glorious death. This glorious death has to tie in with the figurative journey. Ultimately as much as he wants this glorious death he is surrounded by water to give him the new beginning. Often times a death can lead to a fresh start. On this journey the persona is finding theirselves to get this fresh start and a new beginning while knowing it might end in death.


  13. 1)On lines 64-66, “hotter to me are/ delights of the Lord than this dead life”, this line shows the Pagan/Norse belief that there is no greater honor than dying in battle.In lines 41,”in deeds so brave, to him lord so loyal”, this shows elements of Christianity because it refers to god as singular, meaning the Christian god because there are multiple Norse gods.
    An example of a mix of 450 AD and 597 AD beliefs is lines 74-76, “he so work, before he must away/ good actions on earth against malice of fiends,/ brace deeds against devils”. The first two lines talks about the Pagan/Norse belief of glory about how you are supposed to die keeping evils away from your king and the third line talks about the devil from Christian belief.

    2)In the first two stanzas, the seafarer tells of the physical journey but as the poem progresses, it gets more into the psychological and figurative part of the journey.On lines 5-10, “Sought in my ship…Pinched by cold were my feet, bound by frost’s frozen fetters”, the seafarer describes to us what it is like on the actual journey. He is on a ship, and if he is feet is covered in frost then he is also cold. On Lines 15-16, “dwelt on in winter along the exile-tracks,/ bereaved both of friend and kin”, these two lines tells us he is alone with no friend or family and that it is winter and that is why he is cold. “Indeed, he little believes it, who owns life’d joy-/stayed in towns had few baleful journeys”, he doubts that people that stay behind are truly happy, so he is risking death in pursuit of happiness.

    The figurative journey he is on to cleanse himself of past sins. I got this from the term on line 35, “salt-waves”, we know he is on a journey on a ship so he is most likely on the sea or ocean so why did the seafarer specify by saying it is salt. Why does the word salt signify? In Lines 11-12, “hunger within tore/ the mind of the sea-weary one”, the word “hunger” often times connotates or implies wanting to eat. If hunger is eating or tearing him up inside, that tells the audience that the seafarer was distraught.Jocelyn identified on Line 36 “Mind’s desire urges, ever and again” as temptation, I was able to identify that theme again on line 50 “all these urge him, doomed of mind”, doomed in this case can also mean eager, meaning his mind is eager or tempted by these urges. “Doomed” also means dying, relating back to line 11 and 12, the reason why he is distraught is because he is tempted by these desires. In Lines 59-62 it states, “my mind’s thought with mere-flood,/ over the whale’s home, wide in its turning,/ over earth’s regions-comes back to me eager and greedy”. Going back to the meaning of salt, salt at times can mean cleansing.Based on that, the flood in this case represents a cleansing of sorts, but relating back to the argument about how his mind is riddled by temptation, temptation is a synonym for lust, therefore, the flood represents the cleansing or washing away of sins since greed and temptation (lust) are two of the seven deadly sins in the bible. On lines 91-100, “Old age fares over him;bright face grows pale…though golden he strews the graves of his brothers buries by dead men …that dead will not go with him:/ gold is not aid to a soul full of sin”, gold often times represent wealth so these lines mean although these men are surrounded with riches, they were not sent to heaven because of their avarice (greed). “The Measurer establishes his mind, for he believes in His might./One must steer strong mind, hold it established,/ wise in its covenants, clean in its ways”, Based on these lines, the seafarer’s belief in how God decides on who goes to heaven is one must have a clear and steady clean of sin. This figurative journey relates the actual journey because once this journey is over and he is rid of sins, if he dies, he will be able to go to heaven. hence why he is risking his life on the actual journey.


  14. 1) At the end of the poem stanza 7, line 120 The seafarer closes his final thoughts with some strong words about God. “Where life is long in love of God, hope in heavens so to the holy one thanks that he honored us, master of glory, God of Eternity.” This is an example of religious elements and culture elements for the two era’s , 450 AD and 597 AD. During 450 AD faith was important to the Vikings culture, and whatever you can do to make God happy that is what you must do and you would be known as honorable. This is similar to how you were supposed to treat the king, by sacrificing your life in battle for him. For 597 AD the religion and culture is still very similar. Example the whole 2nd stanza speaks on how The Seafarer is taking the job of protecting the king seriously and being disappointed that his fellow men aren’t. As said previously taking care of the king is very honorable and when The Seafarer witnesses his fellow men drinking it disrupts him. Now in terms of religion the Viking tribes wanted their religion to spread, so they would try desperately to compete this task. “Ice- cold sea, dwelt on in winter along the exile tracks bereaved both of friend and of kin, behung with rime crystals and hail showers.” This is an example of some of the obstacles the Vikings had to take to spread their religion, which shows how important it still was.

    2) The Seafarer is going through two remarkable journey’s that are, the journey of perseverance and the journey of realization . The journey of perseverance comes from what he is going through with the other men such as conditions. The ice cold sea, the hail etc are all obstacles that the Seafarer must overcome to reach the end of his journey. The journey of realization is equally important throughout his physically journey, he almost falls to the influence of drinking mead with the fellow Vikings but he gains a realization. That he has a role to play In protecting the king and during the journey he uses God to continue to save him. At the end of the journey he gains many realizations that help his faith for God rise.


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